Achromatic is an adjective that can be applied in different areas. Based on definition by Digopaul, the notion refers to that which lacks color, unlike that which is chromatic. In this context, often referred to the white ‘s and black as achromatic colors.
The white lacks darkness and has the highest level of clarity. The black, however, consists in reverse (unclearly and with maximum darkness). So both colors are achromatic.
In the field of optics, the term refers to the system or material that is in a position to achieve the transmission of white light without it being decomposed into the colors that constitute it. In other words: an achromatic system does not decompose white light when it is crossed by it.
This operation is possible since the system manages to deflect the light so that all its constituent colors are focused on a single point. The result, in the lenses, is to obtain a high definition image.
The achromatic color blindness is a vision disorder that leads to a person to see in black and white. These subjects, due to neurological issues or lack of the necessary sensory cells, are not in a position to distinguish colors. Statistically, it is estimated that this type of color blindness occurs in one out of every 100,000 people.
Generally speaking, color blindness is a genetic alteration that affects the ability to distinguish colors. The mathematician and chemist responsible for its discovery was named John Dalton, and from there the name of this disorder arose. It is important to highlight that there are several types of color blindness, in addition to that exposed in the previous paragraph, and that not all are so severe as to prevent the perception of any color, since some focus on shades of red and green, for example.
Finally, in the field of biology, the adjective achromatic is used to describe the organelle of cells that is not stained by the usual dyes. The achromatic spindle, in this framework, is a group of microtubules that, during meiosis or mitosis, arises from the centrioles and reaches the centromeres.
As expected, we also find this concept in the plastic arts, where the application of color is usually one of the fundamental steps in creating works. In this case we talk about achromatic art or achromatism in art, to refer to the paintings that only include white, black and some shades of gray.
Achromatic art is very popular, and attracts both connoisseurs of the subject and the general public. For an artist, composing a work using simply white, black and gray can be a great challenge from an expressive point of view, especially if you want to paint a happy picture or a scene in which a large number of different colors would normally be appreciated.
On the other hand, thanks to the absence of color, an achromatic painting can generate a greater impact on the observer, and there is one of the reasons why this type of art generates such a particular attraction in the public. Its scope is very wide, since achromatism in art is used both in paintings and in the field of decoration, cinema and even video games.
It is important not to confuse achromatic art with monochrome, which can be seen in works for which artists use a single color and play with its properties, such as saturation, to distinguish each object in the scene.