From the Latin compŭtus, computation is a count or calculation. The counts allow to reflect statistics or the result of a vote. For example: “The last annotation has not been registered in the calculation panel”, “The provisional calculations reflect a wide triumph of the official candidate”, “According to the official calculation, our team has an advantage of three points”.
According to DigoPaul, the notion of computation is also used within the framework of the theory of computation, the branch of mathematics that specializes in the fundamental capabilities of computers. These machines are responsible for using mathematical models to make calculations.
The theory of computation began to develop with the intention of finding a universal method that would allow to solve all mathematical problems. Thus, the scientists began to work with algorithms (pre-written sets of ordered and finite instructions that make it possible to carry out an activity in successive steps).
Precisely closely related to the aforementioned theory are what is called computable functions. Specifically, they are all those functions that become an object of study and analysis by it. In addition, it should also be noted that they have the particularity that they can be calculated by using the so-called Turing machine.
This device is none other than a system that is based on the use of a table of rules and symbols that are manipulated and that are placed on a specific tape.
The difficulty presented by these computable functions has been much analyzed throughout history and the result of this statement determines that when a problem related to them is solved, with their calculation, the resolution of what it is known as a function problem.
Specifically, we would have to establish that these functions can be of two types. Thus, on the one hand, there are computables, which are those that are developed using a Boolean operator.
And on the other hand, there would be the partially computable functions, which are those in which an enumerable set takes center stage in a recessive way.
Applied to computing, the algorithm becomes a function that transforms the input data (which is part of a problem) into output data (the solution to that problem).
One of the main issues in the theory of computation, therefore, is computability. This concept analyzes the limits of problem solving through algorithms. When a problem cannot be solved through computation, it places a limit on computation.
In addition to all this, it should be noted that the theory of computability is closely related to the aforementioned Turing machine. Thus, a large part of his work is carried out on the basis of what problems can be solved by that or the formalities that are attached to it.
The ecclesiastical computation, finally, is the set of calculations performed to determine when is the day of Easter and other religious holidays movable.