Definition of HLP in English

According to abbreviationfinder, HLP stands for hyperlipoproteinemia. Hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is characterized by elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins in the blood. The causes of hyperlipoproteinemia are diverse and its consequences must be considered in a differentiated manner.

What is hyperlipoproteinemia?

Hyperlipoproteinemia is primarily asymptomatic. However, it can be the cause of serious cardiovascular diseases that can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

Hyperlipoproteinemia is a lipid metabolism disorder that has either primary or secondary causes. A primary hyperlipoproteinemia is genetic, while the secondary form is always a result of unhealthy lifestyle or underlying diseases such. B. diabetes, is.

Lipoproteins are always in the blood, where they transport cholesterol and triglycerides (fats). The cholesterol formed as part of the fat metabolism assumes central functions in the organism. It is the starting material for the steroid hormones, the bile and is a main component of all cell membranes. The triglycerides also have to be transported to their destination for energy production. The lipoproteins transport the lipids either from the liver to the other organs using LDL (low-density lipoproteins) or vice versa from the organs and blood vessel system to the liver using HDL (high-density lipoproteins).

In hyperlipoproteinemia, the ratio of LDL to HDL is often shifted in favor of LDL. However, LDL has a high risk potential for arteriosclerosis and the diseases that result from it. HDL has the opposite effect. Hyperlipoproteinemia is also divided into hypercholesterolaemia (elevated cholesterol levels), hypertriglyceridaemia (elevated triglyceride levels) and mixed hyperlipidaemia.


In its primary form, hyperlipoproteinemia is genetic. There are many possible mutations in the lipoproteins. The regulatory mechanism of the processes of breaking down and building up cholesterol can also be disturbed.

As a result, hyperlipoproteinemias of all kinds occur with different risks for secondary diseases. Secondarily, they are usually caused by a high-fat diet, lack of exercise or as a result of underlying diseases that are related to the fat metabolism, such as. B. diabetes, obesity, liver or gallbladder diseases. Type 2 diabetes is B. characterized in that due to the poorly effective insulin very high concentrations of the same must be formed. Since insulin also mobilizes fat, the lipid concentration in the blood increases.

Fats and cholesterol are lipids and are therefore always transported together by lipoproteins. Diseases that disrupt fat breakdown are also the cause of hyperlipoproteinemia, as is increased fat intake from food, reduced fat breakdown due to lack of exercise, or increased fat release from the fat cells in the case of obesity.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

There are different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. They differ in terms of their symptoms. A prominent symptom that can point to all forms of the disease is the occurrence of tendinous xanthoma. These are small yellowish-white skin changes. There are five types of primary hyperlipoproteinemia with different symptoms.

Type 1 is primarily indicated by xanthomas and lipid deposits in the liver and spleen. Type 2 leads to circulatory disorders, arteriosclerosis and increased cholesterol levels. This type of disease is associated with an increased risk of heart attack. In type 3, too, the cholesterol level is elevated and the risk of arteriosclerosis is increased.

The most prominent symptoms of type 4 are abdominal pain in the form of upper abdominal colic, obesity, fatty liver, hyperuricemia (gout), an increased risk of arteriosclerosis and frequent inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Type 5 is characterized by simultaneous enlargement of the spleen and liver (hepatosplenomegaly).

In addition, there are xanthoma of the skin, upper abdominal colic, obesity and an increased cholesterol level. There is also secondary hyperlipoproteinemia, which in a few cases can be indicated by tendinous xanthoma and so-called xanthelasma. These are conspicuous symmetrical yellowish-white skin changes on the eyelids and the inner corner of the eye.

Diagnosis & History

Hyperlipoproteinemia is primarily asymptomatic. However, it can be the cause of serious cardiovascular diseases that can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

In fact, certain forms of hyperlipoproteinemia can form plaques in the blood vessels (arteriosclerosis), which then cause these diseases. There is only an increased risk of arteriosclerosis if the LDL is elevated or the HDL is reduced. HDL transports the lipids from the blood vessel system to the liver. It also partially dissolves cholesterol from the plaques, allowing them to shrink. However, the LDL cholesterol is transported from the liver to the organs.

It is easily oxidized and in its oxidized form is rapidly taken up by macrophages, which then attach to the plaques as fat-laden foam cells. Hyperlipoproteinemia is diagnosed by determining the blood lipid levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and lipoproteins after at least 12 hours of fasting.


Hyperlipoproteinemia causes various complaints and symptoms in the patient. These symptoms usually depend on the exact type of hyperlipoproteinemia. As a rule, the patients suffer from obesity and continue to be overweight. There is an increased risk of a heart attack, which usually greatly reduces the patient’s life expectancy.

It is not uncommon for abdominal pain to occur. The liver can also be affected by hyperlipoproteinemia due to fatty liver. Being overweight itself has a very negative effect on the general state of health of the patient and can lead to further pain in the joints and knees of the person concerned.

Hyperlipoproteinemia also causes other cardiovascular diseases. If a stroke occurs, it can lead to death or severe limitations in the everyday life of the person affected. Paralysis, in particular, occurs, which can make everyday life more difficult.

Treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia does not lead to further complications. In most cases, it takes place with the help of medication that reduces the symptoms. However, the person concerned should lead a healthy lifestyle and avoid being overweight at all costs. There may be a reduction in life expectancy.

When should you go to the doctor?

If symptoms such as abdominal pain, obesity, circulatory disorders or signs of fatty liver are noticed, hyperlipoproteinemia may be the cause. A visit to the doctor is indicated if the symptoms last for several days and severely affect your well-being. If other problems become noticeable, it is best to see a doctor on the same day. The disease can be treated well if it is detected early. In the absence of treatment, however, serious complications and long-term effects can develop.

At the latest when signs of arteriosclerosis or other serious diseases are noticed, medical advice is required. The person concerned should immediately visit the family doctor and arrange for further examinations. People who lead an unhealthy lifestyle are particularly prone to developing hyperlipoproteinemia. Obesity, liver or gallbladder diseases and type 2 diabetes are also typical risk factors that need to be clarified. If the symptoms mentioned occur in connection with these diseases, immediate clarification by the family doctor or an internist is indicated.

Treatment & Therapy

Hyperlipoproteinemia requires treatment because of its risk of developing arteriosclerosis. Primary hyperlipoproteinemia must be treated continuously with medication. For this purpose, so-called lipid-lowering agents are applied.

Important lipid-lowering drugs include CSE inhibitors, niacin and fibrates. In the secondary forms of this metabolic disorder, a change in lifestyle is often enough. Obesity should be reduced through a low-fat, low-calorie and high-fiber diet. If there is another underlying disease, its treatment is a prerequisite for achieving normal blood lipid levels.

Since hyperlipoproteinemia is only a symptom and not an independent disease, it can only be considered in the overall complex of therapy.

Outlook & Forecast

Hyperlipoproteinemia is not cured in most cases. Nevertheless, the prognosis is linked to the underlying disease and must be assessed individually. In the case of a chronic disease, the symptoms that occur are treated. There is no cure for diabetes, but a good quality of life can be achieved if various parameters are taken into account.

The administration of medication regulates the metabolism, which leads to an improvement in the symptoms. In long-term therapy, a successful alleviation of symptoms can therefore be documented in a large number of patients. However, a relapse occurs immediately if the medication is discontinued or there are no necessary check-ups in which the active ingredients are readjusted.

If the hyperlipoproteinemia is triggered by being very overweight, the patient has a good prognosis if the weight is permanently lost. The healing of the underlying disease is lengthy and often associated with recurrences or other complications. Nevertheless, there is a prospect of improvement. In the case of a lack of exercise and the wrong diet, those affected can in some cases independently contribute to improving their quality of life.

If there is damage to the organs, long-term therapy is also necessary. In some cases, organ donation must be performed. If this takes place successfully, the hyperlipoproteinemia is considered cured.


The secondary forms of hyperlipoproteinemia can be effectively prevented. A healthy lifestyle without nicotine, a healthy diet and sufficient exercise is sufficient for this. Some pre-existing conditions of hyperlipoproteinemia can also be prevented in this way.


In the case of hyperlipoproteinemia, the focus is on early detection and treatment of the disease. A doctor should be contacted as soon as the first symptoms and symptoms appear. The earlier the disease is detected, the better the further course of the hyperlipoproteinemia will be in most cases. Since this cannot lead to self-healing, a medical examination and treatment must always take place.

The disease is usually treated by taking medication. It is important to ensure that the correct dosage is taken regularly so that the symptoms can be properly alleviated. In the event of side effects or interactions with other medications, a doctor should always be consulted first.

In general, with hyperlipoproteinemia, a healthy lifestyle with proper nutrition also has a positive effect on the course of the disease. Being overweight should be avoided. Regular examinations by a doctor are also very useful, whereby the fat levels in the blood should be checked in particular. In some cases, hyperlipoproteinemia has another underlying condition that needs to be treated first. The disease may result in a reduced life expectancy for those affected.

You can do that yourself

A change in diet can make a significant contribution to reducing blood lipid levels and body weight in hyperlipoproteinemia. Daily fat intake should be limited to no more than 30 percent of daily calories, including hidden fats. Vegetable oils consisting of unsaturated fatty acids are recommended for the preparation of the food, the use of chemically hardened fats is not advisable.

Cold-water fish such as salmon or mackerel contain valuable omega-3 fatty acids that can have a beneficial effect on cholesterol levels. Gentle cooking methods such as stewing or steaming do not require any fat at all. About half of the daily calorie requirement should be covered by complex carbohydrates from fruit, vegetables, whole grain products, potatoes and legumes. Garlic, artichoke leaves and psyllium are said to have a cholesterol-lowering and vascular-protecting effect.

Lots of exercise and a healthy lifestyle with little alcohol and, if possible, no nicotine help to reduce excess weight and thereby improve blood lipid levels. In addition, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease as a result of hyperlipoproteinemia decreases. Existing underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus must be treated and stopped as much as possible. If there is a family predisposition, regular monitoring of blood lipid levels is recommended in order to be able to counteract an increase before damage to health occurs. In the case of hereditary hyperlipoproteinemia, drug therapy is usually necessary in addition to a change in lifestyle.